Sustainable Development Goals

            Sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, halt and reverse land degradation, halt biodiversity loss

            Healthy ecosystems protect the planet and sustain livelihoods. Forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in particular, provide myriad environmental goods and services - clean air and water, biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation. Forests and rangelands sustain a range of industries, generate jobs and income and act as a source of food, medicine and fuel for more than a billion people.

            Today, however, natural resources are deteriorating, ecosystems are stressed and biological diversity is being lost across the globe. Land use changes, including deforestation, result in a loss of valuable habitats, a decrease in clean water, land degradation, soil erosion and the release of carbon into the atmosphere. They contribute to the loss of valuable economic assets and livelihood opportunities.

            FAO promotes sustainable approaches to natural resource management. The Organization’s assessment reports such as those on soils, forests and land degradation provide a basis for evidence-based decision-making. Multi-stakeholder alliances support inclusive governance approaches that promote a balance between conservation and development action.


            The success of the Sustainable Development Goals rests to a large extent on effective monitoring, review and follow-up processes. SDG indicators are the foundation of this new global framework for mutual accountability. FAO is the ‘custodian’ UN agency for 21 indicators, for SDGs 2, 5, 6, 12, 14 and 15 and a contributing agency for four more.

            15.1.1 Forest area as a percentage of total land area

            15.2.1 Progress towards sustainable forest management

            15.4.2 Mountain Green Cover Index

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